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Actions and drivers

Object action

A bouncing ball. Code Snippets ObAction.png

#--------------------------------------------------
# File ob_action.py
#--------------------------------------------------
import bpy
import math
 
def run(origin):
    # Set animation start and stop
    scn = bpy.context.scene
    scn.frame_start = 11
    scn.frame_end = 200
 
    # Create ico sphere
    bpy.ops.mesh.primitive_ico_sphere_add(location=origin)
    ob = bpy.context.object
 
    # Insert keyframes with operator code
    # Object should be automatically selected
    z = 10
    t = 1
    for n in range(5):
        t += 10
        bpy.ops.anim.change_frame(frame = t)
        bpy.ops.transform.translate(value=(2, 0, z))
        bpy.ops.anim.keyframe_insert_menu(type='Location')
        t += 10
        bpy.ops.anim.change_frame(frame = t)
        bpy.ops.transform.translate(value=(2, 0, -z))
        bpy.ops.anim.keyframe_insert_menu(type='Location')
        z *= 0.67
 
    action = ob.animation_data.action
 
    # Create dict with location FCurves
    fcus = {}
    for fcu in action.fcurves:
        if fcu.data_path == 'location':
            fcus[fcu.array_index] = fcu
    print(fcus.items())
 
    # Add new keypoints to x and z    
    kpts_x = fcus[0].keyframe_points
    kpts_z = fcus[2].keyframe_points
    (x0,y0,z0) = origin
    omega = 2*math.pi/20
    z *= 0.67
    for t in range(101, 201):
        xt = 20 + 0.2*(t-101)
        zt = z*(1-math.cos(omega*(t - 101)))
        z *= 0.98
        kpts_z.insert(t, zt+z0, options={'FAST'})
    kpts_x.insert(t, xt+x0)
 
    # Change extrapolation and interpolation for 
    # X curve to linear
    fcus[0].extrapolation = 'LINEAR'
    for kp in kpts_x:
        kp.interpolation = 'LINEAR'        
 
    # Y location constant and can be removed
    action.fcurves.remove(fcus[1])
    bpy.ops.object.paths_calculate()
    return
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    run((0,0,10))
    bpy.ops.screen.animation_play(reverse=False, sync=False)

Posebone action

This program creates an armature with two bones, which rotate in some complicated curves. Code Snippets PoseAction.png

#--------------------------------------------------
# File pose_action.py
#--------------------------------------------------
import bpy
import math
 
def run(origin):
    # Set animation start and stop
    scn = bpy.context.scene
    scn.frame_start = 1
    scn.frame_end = 250
 
    # Create armature and object    
    bpy.ops.object.armature_add()
    ob = bpy.context.object
    amt = ob.data
 
    # Rename first bone and create second bone
    bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='EDIT')    
    base = amt.edit_bones['Bone']
    base.name = 'Base'
    tip = amt.edit_bones.new('Tip')
    tip.head = (0,0,1)
    tip.tail = (0,0,2)
    tip.parent = base
    tip.use_connect = True
 
    # Set object location in object mode
    bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='OBJECT')    
    ob.location=origin    
 
    # Set rotation mode to Euler ZYX
    bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='POSE')    
    pbase = ob.pose.bones['Base']
    pbase.rotation_mode = 'ZYX'
    ptip = ob.pose.bones['Tip']    
    ptip.rotation_mode = 'ZYX'
 
    # Insert 26 keyframes for two rotation FCurves
    # Last keyframe will be outside animation range
 
    for n in range(26):    
        pbase.keyframe_insert(
            'rotation_euler', 
            index=0,
            frame=n,
            group='Base')
        ptip.keyframe_insert(
            'rotation_euler', 
            index=2,
            frame=n,
            group='Tip')
 
    # Get FCurves from newly created action
    action = ob.animation_data.action
    fcus = {}
    for fcu in action.fcurves:
        bone = fcu.data_path.split('"')[1]
        fcus[(bone, fcu.array_index)] = fcu
 
    # Modify the keypoints
    baseKptsRotX = fcus[('Base', 0)].keyframe_points
    tipKptsRotZ = fcus[('Tip', 2)].keyframe_points
 
    omega = 2*math.pi/250
    for n in range(26):
        t = 10*n
        phi = omega*t
        kp = baseKptsRotX[n]
        kp.co = (t+1,phi+0.7*math.sin(phi))
        kp.interpolation = 'LINEAR'
        kp = tipKptsRotZ[n]
        kp.co = (t+1, -3*phi+2.7*math.cos(2*phi))
        kp.interpolation = 'LINEAR'
 
    # Calculate paths for posebones
    bpy.ops.pose.select_all(action='SELECT')
    bpy.ops.pose.paths_calculate()
    return
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    run((10,0,0))
    bpy.ops.screen.animation_play(reverse=False, sync=False)

Parenting

This program creates a complicated motion by consecutively parenting a few empties to each other, and assigning a simple rotation to each of them. Code Snippets Epicycle.png

#----------------------------------------------------------
# File epicycle.py
#----------------------------------------------------------
import bpy
import math
from math import pi
 
def createEpiCycle(origin):
    periods = [1, 5, 8, 17]
    radii = [1.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.1]
    axes = [0, 2, 1, 0]
    phases = [0, pi/4, pi/2, 0]
 
    # Add empties
    scn = bpy.context.scene
    empties = []
    nEmpties = len(periods)
    for n in range(nEmpties):
        empty = bpy.data.objects.new('Empty_%d' % n, None)
        scn.objects.link(empty)
        empties.append(empty)
 
    # Make each empty the parent of the consecutive one
    for n in range(1, nEmpties):
        empties[n].parent = empties[n-1]
        empties[n].location = (0, radii[n-1], 0)
 
    # Insert two keyframes for each empty
    for n in range(nEmpties):
        empty = empties[n]
        empty.keyframe_insert(
            'rotation_euler', 
            index=axes[n],
            frame=0,
            group=empty.name)
        empty.keyframe_insert(
            'rotation_euler', 
            index=axes[n],
            frame=periods[n],
            group=empty.name)
        fcu = empty.animation_data.action.fcurves[0]
        print(empty, fcu.data_path, fcu.array_index)
 
        kp0 = fcu.keyframe_points[0]
        kp0.co = (0, phases[n]) 
        kp0.interpolation = 'LINEAR'
        kp1 = fcu.keyframe_points[1]
        kp1.co = (250.0/periods[n], 2*pi + phases[n]) 
        kp1.interpolation = 'LINEAR'
        fcu.extrapolation = 'LINEAR'
 
    last = empties[nEmpties-1]
    bpy.ops.mesh.primitive_ico_sphere_add(
        size = 0.2,
        location=last.location)
    ob = bpy.context.object
    ob.parent = last
 
    empties[0].location = origin
    return
 
def run(origin):
    createEpiCycle(origin)
    bpy.ops.object.paths_calculate()
    return
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    run((0,0,0))
    bpy.ops.screen.animation_play(reverse=False, sync=False)

Drivers

This program adds an armature with one driver bones and two driven bones. The tip's Z rotation is driven by the driver's x location. The base's Z rotation is driven both by the driver's Y location and its Z rotation. Code Snippets driver.png

#----------------------------------------------------------
# File driver.py
#----------------------------------------------------------
import bpy
 
def run(origin):
    # Create armature and object
    amt = bpy.data.armatures.new('MyRigData')
    rig = bpy.data.objects.new('MyRig', amt)
    rig.location = origin
    amt.show_names = True
    # Link object to scene
    scn = bpy.context.scene
    scn.objects.link(rig)
    scn.objects.active = rig
    scn.update()
 
    # Create bones
    bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='EDIT')
    base = amt.edit_bones.new('Base')
    base.head = (0,0,0)
    base.tail = (0,0,1)
 
    tip = amt.edit_bones.new('Tip')
    tip.head = (0,0,1)
    tip.tail = (0,0,2)
    tip.parent = base
    tip.use_connect = True
 
    driver = amt.edit_bones.new('Driver')
    driver.head = (2,0,0)
    driver.tail = (2,0,1)
 
    bpy.ops.object.mode_set(mode='POSE')
 
    # Add driver for Tip's Z rotation
    # Tip.rotz = 1.0 - 1.0*x, where x = Driver.locx
    fcurve = rig.pose.bones["Tip"].driver_add('rotation_quaternion', 3)
    drv = fcurve.driver
    drv.type = 'AVERAGE'
    drv.show_debug_info = True
 
    var = drv.variables.new()
    var.name = 'x'
    var.type = 'TRANSFORMS'
 
    targ = var.targets[0]
    targ.id = rig
    targ.transform_type = 'LOC_X'
    targ.bone_target = 'Driver'
    targ.use_local_space_transform = True
 
    fmod = fcurve.modifiers[0]
    fmod.mode = 'POLYNOMIAL'
    fmod.poly_order = 1
    fmod.coefficients = (1.0, -1.0)
 
    # Add driver for Base's Z rotation
    # Base.rotz = z*z - 3*y, where y = Driver.locy and z = Driver.rotz
    fcurve = rig.pose.bones["Base"].driver_add('rotation_quaternion', 3)
    drv = fcurve.driver
    drv.type = 'SCRIPTED'
    drv.expression = 'z*z - 3*y'
    drv.show_debug_info = True
 
    var1 = drv.variables.new()
    var1.name = 'y'
    var1.type = 'TRANSFORMS'
 
    targ1 = var1.targets[0]
    targ1.id = rig
    targ1.transform_type = 'LOC_Y'
    targ1.bone_target = 'Driver'
    targ1.use_local_space_transform = True
 
    var2 = drv.variables.new()
    var2.name = 'z'
    var2.type = 'TRANSFORMS'
 
    targ2 = var2.targets[0]
    targ2.id = rig
    targ2.transform_type = 'ROT_Z'
    targ2.bone_target = 'Driver'
    targ2.use_local_space_transform = True
 
    return
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    run((0,0,0))