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Proposed fixes: none

The Timeline

The Timeline window, identified by a clock icon, is shown by default at the bottom of the screen.

Timeline 2.69
The Timeline is not much of an editor, but more of a information and control window.
Here you can have an overview of the animation part of your scene
What is the current time frame, either in frames or in seconds, where are the keyframes of the active object, the start and end frames of your animation, markers, etc...
The Timeline has Player Controls, to play, pause the animation, and to skip though parts of the scene.
It also has some tools for Keyframes, Keying Sets, and Markers.

Timeline Elements

Time Cursor

Time Cursor

The Time Cursor is the green line, its used to set and display the current time frame.

The Time Cursor can be set or moved to a new position by pressing or holding LMB Template-LMB.png in the Timeline window.

The current frame or second can be displayed on the Time Cursor, check the View menu for settings.

The Time Cursor can be moved in steps by pressing Arrow left or Arrow right, or in steps of 10 frames by pressing ⇧ ShiftArrow up or ⇧ ShiftArrow down.

Keyframes

For the active and selected objects, keyframes are displayed as a yellow line.
For Armatures, the object keyframes and the pose bones keyframes are drawn.
Only Selected Channels can be enabled. Timeline > View > Only Selected Channels.
For Armatures, this will draw the object keyframes, and the keyframes for the active and selected pose bones.

Markers

Markers are the small triangles, with their name near them.
Markers are usually used to identify key parts of the animation.
Markers
Markers can be selected by pressing RMB Template-RMB.png or ⇧ ShiftRMB Template-RMB.png to select more.
See Marker Menu below or Markers for more info.

Adjusting the View

Timeline Area

The main Timeline area displays the animation frames over time.
Timeline Main Area
The Timeline can be panned by holding MMB Template-MMB.png, then dragging the area left or right.
You can zoom the Timeline by using CtrlMMB Template-MMB.png, the mouse Wheel Template-MW.png, or pressing the - and + keys on the numpad.
By default, the Playback/Rendering Range (Frame Start 1 to Frame End 200) is a lighter shade of gray.
The start and end frame can be set to the Time Cursor by pressing S or E.
The Playback Range can also be set by pressing P then drawing a box.

Timeline Header

View Menu

The View Menu controls what you see, and what it looks like.

Toggle Full Screen
Maximize or minimize the Timeline window. CtrlArrow up or CtrlArrow down
Duplicate Area into New Window
This creates a new OS window, and sets the editor window to the Timeline.
Bind Camera to Markers
This is used switch cameras during animation.
It binds the active camera to the selected markers.
First select a camera. Then select the marker(s). Then use the function. CtrlB
Cache
This will display the baked Cache Steps for the active object.
Timline Cache
Show Cache
Show all enabled types.
Softbody, Particles, Cloth, Smoke, Dynamic Paint, Rigid Body.
Only Selected Channels
For Armatures, this will draw the object keyframes, and the keyframes for the active and selected pose bones.
Show Frame Number Indicator
This will draw the current frame or seconds on the Time Cursor.
View All
Maximize the Timeline area based on the Animation Range. ↖ Home
Show Seconds
Show time in seconds for the Timeline and the the Time Cursor based on the FPS. CtrlT

Marker Menu

Jump to Previous Marker
Jump to Next Marker
Grab/Move Marker
Grab/Move the selected markers. G
Rename Marker
Rename the active marker. CtrlM
Delete Marker
Delete selected markers. X
Duplicate Marker to Scene...
Duplicate the selected markers to another scene.
Duplicate Marker
Duplicate the selected markers. ⇧ ShiftD
Add Marker
Add marker to the current frame. M

Frame Menu

Auto-Keyframing Mode
This controls how the Auto Keyframe mode works.
Only one mode can be used at a time.
Add & Replace
Add or Replace existing keyframes.
Replace
Only Replace existing keyframes.

Playback Menu

Audio Scrubbing
If your animation has sound, this option plays bits of the sound wave while you move the time cursor with LMB or keyboard <- arrows ->.
Audio Muted
Mute the sound from Sequence Editors.
AV-sync
Play back and sync with audio clock, dropping frames if frame display is too slow.
See Header Controls IV Synchronize Playback for more info.
Frame Dropping
Play back dropping frames if frames are too slow.
See Header Controls IV Synchronize Playback for more info.
Clip Editors
While playing, updates the Movie Clip Editor.
Node Editors
While playing, updates the Node properties for the Node Editor.
Sequencer Editors
While playing, updates the Video Sequence Editor.
Image Editors
Not sure what is updated, maybe gif images or, image sequence.
Image Editors
// Todo.
Property Editors
When the animation is playing, this will update the property values in the UI.
Animation Editors
While playing, updates the Timeline, Dope Sheet, Graph Editor, Video Sequence Editor.
All 3D View Editors
While playing, updates the 3D View and the the Timeline.
Top-Left 3D Editor
While playing, updates the Timeline if Animation Editors and All 3D View Editors disabled.

Header Controls

The Timeline header controls.

Timeline header controls.

I Range Control

Use Preview Range
This is an alternative range used to preview animations.
This works for the UI playback, this will not work for rendering an animation.
Lock Time Cursor to Playback Range
This limits the Time Cursor to the Playback Range.

II Frame Control

Start Frame
The start frame of the animation / playback range.
End Frame
The end frame of the animation / playback range.
Current Frame
The current frame of the animation / playback range.
Also the position of the Time Cursor.

III Player Control

These button are used to set, play, rewind, the Time Cursor.
Player Controls.
Jump to start
This sets the cursor to the start of frame range. ⇧ ShiftCtrlArrow down or ⇧ ShiftArrow left
Jump to previous keyframe
This sets the cursor to the previous keyframe. Arrow down
Rewind
This plays the animation sequence in reverse. ⇧ ShiftAltA
When playing the play buttons switch to a pause button.
Play
This plays the animation sequence. AltA
When playing the play buttons switch to a pause button.
Jump to next keyframe
This sets the cursor to the next keyframe. Arrow up
Jump to end
This sets the cursor to the end of frame range. ⇧ ShiftCtrlArrow up or ⇧ ShiftArrow right
Pause
This stops the animation. AltA

IV Synchronize Playback

3D View Red FPS. 60:54.75
When you play an animation, the FPS is displayed at the top left of the 3D View.
If the scene is detailed and playback is slower than the set Frame Rate, these options are used to synchronize the playback.
No Sync
Do not sync, play every frame.
Frame Dropping
Drop frames if playback is too slow.
This enables Frame Dropping from the Playback Menu.
AV-sync
Sync to audio clock, dropping frames if playback is slow.
This enables AV-sync and Frame Dropping from the Playback Menu.

V Keyframe Control

Timeline Auto Keyframe.
Auto Keyframe
The "Record" red-dot button enables something called Auto Keyframe: It will add and/or replace existing keyframes for the active object when you transform it in the 3D view.
For example, when enabled, first set the Time Cursor to the desired frame, then move an object in the 3d view, or set a new value for a property in the UI.
When you set a new value for the properties, blender will add keyframes on the current frame for the transform properties.
Auto Keying Set - Optional if Auto Keyframe enabled.
Auto Keyframe will insert new keyframes for the properties in the active Keying Set.
Note that Auto Keyframe only works for transform properties (objects and bones), in the 3D views (i.e. you cant use it e.g. to animate the colors of a material in the Properties window…).


Timeline Layered.
Layered - Optional while playback.
Adds a new NLA Track + Strip for every loop/pass made over the animation to allow non-destructive tweaking.
Timeline Keying Sets.
Active Keying Set
Keying Sets are a set of keyframe channels in one.
They are made so the user can record multiple properties at the same time.
With a keying set selected, when you insert a keyframe, blender will add keyframes for the properties in the active Keying Set.
There are some built in keying sets, 'LocRotScale', and also custom keying sets.
Custom keying sets can be defined in the in the panels Properties > Scene > Keying Sets + Active Keying Set.
Insert Keyframes
Insert keyframes on the current frame for the properties in the active Keying Set.
Delete Keyframes
Delete keyframes on the current frame for the properties in the active Keying Set.

User Preferences

Some related user preferences from the Editing tab.

Playback
Allow Negative Frames
Time Cursor can be set to negative frames with mouse or keyboard.
When using Use Preview Range, this also allows playback.
Keyframing
Visual Keying
When an object is using constraints, the objects property value doesnt actually change.
Visual Keying will add keyframes to the object property, with a value based on the visual transformation from the constraint.
Only Insert Needed
This will only insert keyframes if the value of the propery is different.
Auto Keyframing
Enable Auto Keyframe by default for new scenes.
Show Auto Keying Warning
Displays a warning at the top right of the 3D View, when moving objects, if Auto Keyframe is on.
Only Insert Available
With Auto Keyframe enabled, this will only add keyframes to channel F-Curves that already exist.