From BlenderWiki

Jump to: navigation, search
Blender3D FreeTip.gif
IMPORTANT! Do not update this page!
We have moved the Blender User Manual to a new location. Please do not update this page, as it will be locked soon.
Page status (reviewing guidelines)

Text motion tracking constraints
Proposed fixes: none

Constraints

Constraints are a way of connecting transform properties (position, rotation and scale) between objects. Constraints are in a way the object counterpart of the modifiers, which work on the object data (i.e. meshes, curves, etc.).

All constraints share a basic common interface, again with many similarities with the modifiers’ one.

Use of Constraints

Even though constraints might be very useful in static scenes (as they can help to automatically position/rotate/scale objects), they were first designed for animation, as they allow you to limit/control the freedom of an object, either in absolute (i.e. in global space), or relatively to other objects.

Also note that constraints internally work using 4x4 transformation matrices only. When you use settings for specific rotation or scaling constraining, this information is being derived from the matrix only, not from settings in a Bone or Object. Especially for combining rotations with non-uniform or negative scaling this can lead to unpredictable behavior.

Constraining bones

Finally, there is a great rigging feature in Blender: in Pose mode, each bone of an armature behaves a bit like a standard object, and, as such, can be constrained. Most constraints work well with both objects and bones, but there are a few exceptions which are noted in the relevant constraints pages.

To learn more:

  • Read about using constraints in object animation in the Animation chapter
  • Read about using constraints in rigging in the Armatures

Available Constraints

The Constraint Menu

There are several types of constraints. We can classify them into four families:


There are constraints that works with their owner object and others that need a second object (the target) to work, sometimes of a specific type (e.g. a curve). In this case targeted constraints are shown as a dark blue dashed line drawn in the 3D view between the owner and target objects.


Motion Tracking

Camera Solver This constraint is applied to a camera in the scene. Its constraints Blender camera movements according tracked and solved camera movements from a real filmed movie clip.
Object Solver This constraint constraints object movements according tracked and solved object movements from a real filmed movie clip. Its applied to a object in the scene.
Follow Track This constraint is applied to a camera in the scene. Its constraints Blender camera movements according tracked and solved camera movement by some path in a real filmed movie clip.

Transform Constraints

These constraints directly control/limit the transform properties of its owner, either absolutely or relatively in terms of its target properties.

Copy Location Copies the location of the target (with an optional offset) to the owner, so that both move together.
Copy Rotation Copies the rotation of the target (with an optional offset) to the owner, so that both rotate together.
Copy Scale Copies the scale of the target (with an optional offset) to the owner, so that both scale together.
Copy Transforms Copies the transforms of the target to the owner, so that both transform together.
Limit Distance Limits the position of the owner, so that it is nearer/further/exactly at the specified distance from the target.
Limit Location Limits the owner’s location inside a given range.
Limit Rotation Limits the owner’s rotation inside a given range.
Limit Scale Limits the owner’s scale inside a given range.
Transformation Uses a property of the target (location, rotation or scale), to control a property (the same or a different one) of the owner.
Maintain Volume Maintains the volume of a bone or an object.

Tracking Constraints

These constraints try, in various ways, to adjust their owner’s properties so that it “points at” or “follows” the target.

Clamp To Clamps the owner to a given curve target.
Damped Track Constrains one local axis of the owner to always point towards Target.
Inverse Kinematics Bones only. Creates a chain of bones controlled by the target, using inverse kinematics.
Locked Track The owner is tracked to the given target, but with a given axis’ orientation locked.
Spline IK Aligns a chain of bones along a curve.
Stretch To Stretch the owner to the given target.
Track To The owner is tracked to the given target.

Relationship Constraints

These are “misc” constraints.

Action The owner executes an action, controlled by the target (driver).
Child Of Allows a selective application of the effects of parenting to another object.
Floor Uses the target’s position (and optionally rotation) to define a “wall” or “floor” that the owner won’t be able to cross.
Follow Path The owner moves along the curve target.
Pivot Allows the owner to rotate around a target object.
Rigid Body Joint Creates a rigid joint (like a hinge…) between the owner and the “target” (child object).
Script Uses a Python script as constraint.
Shrinkwrap Limits the location of the owner at the surface (among other options) of the target.




Blender3D FreeTip.gif
This is the old manual!
For the current 2.7x manual see http://www.blender.org/manual/


User Manual

World and Ambient Effects

World

Introduction
World Background

Ambient Effects

Mist
Stars (2.69)


Game Engine

Introduction

Introduction to the Game Engine
Game Logic Screen Layout

Logic

Logic Properties and States
The Logic Editor

Sensors

Introduction to Sensors
Sensor Editing
Common Options
-Actuator Sensor
-Always Sensor
-Collision Sensor
-Delay Sensor
-Joystick Sensor
-Keyboard Sensor
-Message Sensor
-Mouse Sensor
-Near Sensor
-Property Sensor
-Radar Sensor
-Random Sensor
-Ray Sensor
-Touch Sensor

Controllers

Introduction
Controller Editing
-AND Controller
-OR Controller
-NAND Controller
-NOR Controller
-XOR Controller
-XNOR Controller
-Expression Controller
-Python Controller

Actuators

Introduction
Actuator Editing
Common Options
-2D Filters Actuator
-Action Actuator
-Camera Actuator
-Constraint Actuator
-Edit Object Actuator
-Game Actuator
-Message Actuator
-Motion Actuator
-Parent Actuator
-Property Actuator
-Random Actuator
-Scene Actuator
-Sound Actuator
-State Actuator
-Steering Actuator
-Visibility Actuator

Game Properties

Introduction
Property Editing

Game States

Introduction

Camera

Introduction
Camera Editing
Stereo Camera
Dome Camera

World

Introduction

Physics

Introduction
Material Physics
No Collision Object
Static Object
Dynamic Object
Rigid Body Object
Soft Body Object
Vehicle Controller
Sensor Object
Occluder Object

Path Finding

Navigation Mesh Modifier

Game Performance

Introduction
System
Display
Framerate and Profile
Level of Detail

Python API

Introduction
Bullet physics
VideoTexture

Deploying

Standalone Player
Licensing of Blender Game

Android Support

Android Game development