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The Constraints Stack

A constraint stack example

Constraints are evaluated from top to bottom of the constraint stack, shown in the Constraints panel.

  1. In (A constraint stack example), first the location of the lamp is copied to the owner object.
  2. The copy rotation constraint is ignored (red name, see below).
  3. So the next constraint evaluated is the Child Of one, which is currently reduced.
  4. Finally, the size of our cube is bounded by the Limit Scale last constraint.
So here, the size of the cube is first controlled by the target of the Child Of constraint, within the limits allowed by the next Limit Scale constraint… As with modifiers, order is crucial!

You can move a constraint up and down the stack by using the small up/down arrow buttons that are drawn in its header, to the right of the constraint name. These buttons are only visible when needed, i.e. the top constraint has only the “down” button, the bottom constraint, only the “up” one – and when there is only one constraint in the stack, both buttons are hidden.

Adding/Removing a Constraint

To add a constraint, you can, in the Constraints panel, click on the… Add Constraint button! A menu shows up, listing all available constraints for the current active object (or bone in Pose mode (in which case the constraint will show up in the bone constraints menu). The new constraint is always added at the bottom of the stack.

You can also, in a 3D view, either:

  • Select only the future owner, hit Ctrl⇧ ShiftC, and in the Add Constraint to New Empty Object menu that pops up, select the constraint you want to add. If the chosen constraint needs it, a new Empty object will be automatically added as target, positioned at the owner’s center, and with null rotation.
  • Select first the future target, and then the future owner, hit Ctrl⇧ ShiftC, and in the Add Constraint to Active Object (or Add Constraint to Active Bone) menu that pops up, select the constraint you want to add. If the chosen constraint needs it, the other selected object/bone will be used as target.

Note that these pop-up menus do not display all the available constraints.

To remove a constraint, click on the “X” button of the header of the constraint you want to delete, in the Constraints panel. You can also remove all constraints from the selected object(s), using the Object » Constraints » Clear Object Constraints (or Pose » Constraints » Clear Pose Constraints… or hit CtrlAltC).



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For the current 2.7x manual see http://www.blender.org/manual/


User Manual

World and Ambient Effects

World

Introduction
World Background

Ambient Effects

Mist
Stars (2.69)


Game Engine

Introduction

Introduction to the Game Engine
Game Logic Screen Layout

Logic

Logic Properties and States
The Logic Editor

Sensors

Introduction to Sensors
Sensor Editing
Common Options
-Actuator Sensor
-Always Sensor
-Collision Sensor
-Delay Sensor
-Joystick Sensor
-Keyboard Sensor
-Message Sensor
-Mouse Sensor
-Near Sensor
-Property Sensor
-Radar Sensor
-Random Sensor
-Ray Sensor
-Touch Sensor

Controllers

Introduction
Controller Editing
-AND Controller
-OR Controller
-NAND Controller
-NOR Controller
-XOR Controller
-XNOR Controller
-Expression Controller
-Python Controller

Actuators

Introduction
Actuator Editing
Common Options
-2D Filters Actuator
-Action Actuator
-Camera Actuator
-Constraint Actuator
-Edit Object Actuator
-Game Actuator
-Message Actuator
-Motion Actuator
-Parent Actuator
-Property Actuator
-Random Actuator
-Scene Actuator
-Sound Actuator
-State Actuator
-Steering Actuator
-Visibility Actuator

Game Properties

Introduction
Property Editing

Game States

Introduction

Camera

Introduction
Camera Editing
Stereo Camera
Dome Camera

World

Introduction

Physics

Introduction
Material Physics
No Collision Object
Static Object
Dynamic Object
Rigid Body Object
Soft Body Object
Vehicle Controller
Sensor Object
Occluder Object

Path Finding

Navigation Mesh Modifier

Game Performance

Introduction
System
Display
Framerate and Profile
Level of Detail

Python API

Introduction
Bullet physics
VideoTexture

Deploying

Standalone Player
Licensing of Blender Game

Android Support

Android Game development